Ratio of white noise on the old the television hirings Arises From the cosmic microwave backgroundDrremaining of the The hot, dense phase of the early universe Which happened around 400 thousand years after the Big Bang.
These cosmic effects are easy to spot. The reason is simple: In long wavelengths, radiation Brightness scales with temperature, and Room temperature is Just One hundred times greater than microwave wallpaper Temperature2.73 degrees Kelvin above absolute zero.
anot her Thermal residue, neutrino background, Separate from cosmic matter A second later the great explosion. in The beginning of my career in AstrophysicsI brainstormed with Glenn Starkman sn feasibility reveala job This background and is found He. She Uphill. Indeed, 35 years later – This neutrino background has not been discovereded so far, however Just Indirectly restricted Based on expansion date Universe.
Dark matter is equal More weak interaction Of neutrinos. Therefore, its particles were thermally separated from known forms of matter and radiation even before the cosmic neutrino background appeared. As with the neutrino background, it is not surprising that we did not It was revealed directly Dark matter particles Until now.
Finally, the weakest interacting particles are gravitons, Represent waves in Free time – Also known as gravitational waves. a year ago, I published paper With Sunny Vagnozzi On detection techniques the Be gravity backgroundPossible thermal residue from planck time, 10 To strength –43 seconds After the big bang.
However, I amnew Calculation We realized this with Mark Hertzberg this week This prediction is just right to an properties being Which Expands in The same an average In all directions. Isotopes If often Supposedly Because it simplifies Einstein's equations General relativity. yH The universal solution to Einstein's equations to Isotropic and homogeneous being It was derived by a Soviet mathematician Alexander Friedman in 1922, and independently in 1927 by a Belgian priest and astronomer George sirIn 1935-1937, by the American physicist Howard B. Robertson British mathematician Arthur Jeffrey Walker.
sign And I solved Einstein's equations for the non-isotropic case and found that iThe universe expandsMr. Dr In a different way for along way different directions, there toThere is not enough time for Thermal Gravitons They are produced through collisions Shortly after the Big Bang. a prominent Deviation from properties He is maybe In early times Because he Translates into negligible deviation at late times and He was Unobservable In cosmic expansion today. Given this view, one can rule out anisotropy at early times by revealto The interaction is weak Thermal effects such as gravitons, dark matter, or neutrinos.
We must keep that in mind weakHe is Interactions characterize all particles at very high energies. The reason is simple: sPrimary particle capture can be used for localization. In his palace Doctoral thesis From 1924, French physicist Louis de Broglie linked The wavelength of each particle is equal to Planck's constant divided by the particle's momentum. Since the waves can be localized At best for Wavelength, cross-sectional area For collisions Particles cannot be larger than the square of their de Broglie wavelength, construction What's called Unit Limit.
The cross section should decrease inversely With power box. This means that collisions at the highest imaginable Planck energy are a quadrillion times greater than the energy achieved at… Large Hadron Collider At CERNhave an interaction cross section similar to that of gravitons, It is the square of the Planck length or 10 to the power of -64.5 square centimetres. in Plank energyyAll molecules are present like The interaction is weak Gravity also allows them to do so.
A small cross-section requires enormous brightness for particles in accelerators that detect collisions at the Planck energy. If foreigners want to test the Physics Particle collisions at Planck energyThey need to crop Glitter Which is 26 times greater than the power of the sun. This is close to the absolute limit on any power supplyIt is equal to the release of energy from a static mass during the time it takes light to cross the horizon of a black hole with that mass. this upper The limit of energy release per equal unit of times Speed of light to 5y Force divided by Newton's constant And independent from Mass/Energy has been released.
But even at low energies, Gravitons or Dark matter Travel free across the The current universe as well during Land, Like a hot knife through butter. they similarity last destinations It may be so Out In interstellar space but It has little effect on our detectors, Included alien Tentacles.
gladly, There is a way out For exotic probes. All forms of MARGravity and gravity cannot be protected. With future progress in Gravitational wave detectors, It may be possible To detect the gravity stealth vehicles developed By foreigners. Space-time distortion is measured as the vehicle's dimensionless gravitational potential Mass It is generated at the detector by multiplying the square of the ratio between the speed of the vehicle and the speed of light. fast Tentacleslike Plasmodium Using light sail technology breakthrough Starshot initiative, For which I chair the scientific advisory board, it is the easiest to discover.
“Reveal what cannot be discovered“ Offers an escape from road from the Social media culture where strong Rule of interactionsas indicated The latest developments in Exchanged by David crush And Neil deGrasse Tyson About an alien Tentacles, With reference to Galileo Project Which I drive. To reduce my cross section of Interactions from this typeI don't have a social media accounta.
Tonight I am An exception was made Grudgingly Agree on Social Dinner with fans In a fancy restaurant ever since, like I invested a significant amount of money in coordinating the event. But my New Year's resolution is this My focus attention on Scientific research on The interaction is weak destinations By searching for evidence that does not easily fall into our hands. My point is that is extraordinary Require evidence that Extraordinary effort. the Silent presence One of the weakly interacting entities is it's interesting. Concludes Their nature He specifies for me Personal answer to Billy Eilish's a question: “What were you created for?”
in the endall of us become weakly reactive destinations We fade and death, So we are better Bring mentally to this game over By studying last Entities that exist all around us but are never noticed.
aVI tooeB He is the head of the Galileo Project, and the founding director of Harvard University – Black Hole Initiative, Director of the Theory Institute and computation at Harvard Smithsonian University Center for Astrophysics, And Former President of Astronomy to divide At Harvard University (2011-2020). He heads up Penetration Advisory Board Starshot project, He is a former member Follower president'the Council to Advisors on Science and technology And former president of the National Physics and Astronomy Council Academies. He is a best-selling author.”Extraterrestrial: the Firstly Signboard to tasty lifebehind Land“And co-author of the textbook.”Life in the universe“, both published in 2021. His new book is entitled”Interstellar“, It was published in August 2023.